Archive for April, 2011

LEARN ENGLISH


coherence and cohesion
If you write more than one or two sentences on a subject, you have to ensure that your text holds together and makes sense to your readers. You do this by making sure that it has two important qualities:
■ coherence
■ cohesion
Coherence
Coherence means that the thought behind the text is consistent and moves logically from one point to the next. A coherent text uses suitable vocabulary and uses it consistently.
Cohesion
The use of grammatical devices to make sure that a text sticks together. The commonest of these are:
■ reference
■ ellipsis
■ sentence adverbials
See also Building texts.

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Learn english


abbreviations
The presentation of abbreviations in writing raises two questions:
■ Should I use full stops?
■ Do I use capital or small letters?
Full stops
■ Normally if you use initial (first) letters to represent words there is no need to put a full stop after them:
UK  BBC
■ In North America, however, it is more common to use a full stop (or ‘period’) after initial letters.
■ If the abbreviation consists of the first and last letters of the word, then you do not use a full stop:
Mr  Ltd
■ If the abbreviation consists of the first part of a word, you put a full stop at the end:
Wed.  Dec.
Capital or small letters
Normally if you use the first letter of a word in an abbreviation a capital letter is used:
HND  BAA  HSBC
One well-known exception to this rule is the abbreviation plc for public limited company, although this is also sometimes written PLC.
See also acronym.

Learn English-determiner


determiner
A class of words that forms an important part of many noun phrases. The determiner comes before the noun and helps to define it. Common determiners are:
a
an
the
this
that
these
those
some
any
no
my
our
your
his
her
its
their
many
few
little
much
other
last
next
one
two
three
etc.
first
second
third
etc.
all
both
half
third
etc.

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LEARN :Apposition


apposition
It is possible to place one noun or noun phrase next to another one in a sentence, so that it explains or amplifies it. For example:
The writer Michael Viney left Dublin 13 years ago to live a life of peace and self-sufficiency in a remote house.
Here the short phrases the writer and Michael Viney work in parallel. They are said to be in apposition to each other.
In the example above, the sentence would work grammatically with only one of the phrases:
The writer left Dublin 13 years ago to live a life of peace and self-sufficiency in a remote house.
Michael Viney left Dublin 13 years ago to live a life of peace and self-sufficiency in a remote house.
But neither of these alternative versions is completely satisfactory. The first leads us to ask, ‘Which writer?’, while the second prompts: ‘Who is Michael Viney?’
See also parenthesis.

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