Archive for September, 2011

Choreography-THE COROMANDAL FISHERS BY SAROJINI NAIDU


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Plurals and Nationalities


Why do we say Italians , but
we say Vietnamese, not
Vietnameses
The Russians are here.*
The Koreans are here.
The Americans are here
The Italians are here.
The New Zealanders are
here.
The Pakistanis are here.
The Chinese are here.*
The Japanese are here.
The British are here.
The Swiss are here.
The French are here.
The Portuguese are here.
It’s mostly phonetic. That is,
it depends on the final sound
of the word.
Words ending in
-an, -ian, -er, -i
require an “s” in the plural
Words ending in
-ese, -ish, -iss, -ch
do not change
Languages (no article)
Russian is easy.
Korean is easy.
Italian is easy.
Chinese is easy.
Japanese is easy.
French is easy.
Generalizations**
Russians are friendly
Koreans are friendly.
New Zealanders are friendly.
The Chinese are friendly.
Chinese people are friendly.
The Japanese are friendly.
Japanese people are friendly.
The French are friendly.
Frenchmen are friendly.
*If you are talking about a
specific group (of Russians,
etc.) , the article the must be
used.
Most of the Italians (in this
class) are female.
Most of the Japanese (in the
restaurant) are from Kyoto.
**If you are talking generally,
no article or preposition is
needed.
With s : Most Americans
speak English. Not: Most of
Americans
No s: Most Vietnamese live in
Asia. Not: Most of
Vietnamese

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REPORTED SPEECH(WHERE TO CHANGE TENSE OF THE VERB)


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FUTURE PERFECT:


Future Perfect
Future Perfect has twod
different forms: “will have
done” and “be going to have
done. ” Unlike Simple Future
forms, Future Perfect forms
are usually interchangeable.
FORM Future Perfect with
“Will ”
[will have + past participle]
Examples:
You will have perfected
your English by the time
you come back from the
U.S .
Will you have perfected
your English by the time
you come back from the
U.S .?
You will not have
perfected your English by
the time you come back
from the U.S.
FORM Future Perfect with
“Be Going To”
[am /is /are + going to have +
past participle]
Examples:
You are going to have
perfected your English by
the time you come back
from the U.S.
Are you going to have
perfected your English by
the time you come back
from the U.S.?
You are not going to
have perfected your
English by the time you
come back from the U.S .
NOTE: It is possible to use
either “will” or “be going to”
to create the Future Perfect
with little or no difference in
meaning.
Complete List of Future
Perfect Forms
USE 1 Completed Action
Before Something in the
Future
The Future Perfect expresses
the idea that something will
occur before another action in
the future. It can also show
that something will happen
before a specific time in the
future.
Examples:
By next November , I will
have received my
promotion.
By the time he gets home,
she is going to have
cleaned the entire house .
I am not going to have
finished this test by 3
o’ clock.
Will she have learned
enough Chinese to
communicate before she
moves to Beijing?
Sam is probably going to
have completed the
proposal by the time he
leaves this afternoon.
By the time I finish this
course, I will have taken
ten tests.
How many countries are
you going to have visited
by the time you turn 50?
Notice in the examples above
that the reference points
( marked in italics) are in
Simple Present rather than
Simple Future . This is because
the interruptions are in time
clauses , and you cannot use
future tenses in time clauses.
USE 2 Duration Before
Something in the Future
(Non -Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs
and some non-continuous
uses of Mixed Verbs, we use
the Future Perfect to show
that something will continue
up until another action in the
future.
Examples:
I will have been in
London for six months by
the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is
going to have had my
book for a week.
Although the above use of
Future Perfect is normally
limited to Non-Continuous
Verbs and non-continuous
uses of Mixed Verbs, the
words “live,” “work,” “teach,”
and “study” are sometimes
used in this way even though
they are NOT Non-Continuous
Verbs.
REMEMBER No Future in
Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the
Future Perfect cannot be used
in clauses beginning with time
expressions such as: when,
while, before, after, by the
time, as soon as, if, unless,
etc. Instead of Future Perfect,
Present Perfect is used.
Examples:
I am going to see a movie
when I will have finished
my homework. Not
Correct
I am going to see a movie
when I have finished my
homework. Correct
ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show
the placement for grammar
adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You will only have learned
a few words.
Will you only have learned
a few words?
You are only going to have
learned a few words.
Are you only going to have
learned a few words?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
They will have completed
the project before the
deadline. Active
The project will have
been completed before
the deadline. Passive
They are going to have
completed the project
before the deadline.
Active
The project is going to
have been completed
before the deadline.
Passive
More About Active / Passive
Forms
EXERCISES AND RELATED
TOPICS
Verb Tense Exercise 25
Future Perfect and Future
Perfect Continuous
Verb Tense Exercise 26
Fut

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The Interrupter


The Interrupter
Recognize an interrupter
when you see one.
An interrupter is a word,
phrase, or clause that
significantly breaks the
flow of a sentence .
Read the examples that
follow:
Please take those
smelly socks to
the garage, Kris,
and put them in
the washing
machine.
My essay, to be
perfectly honest,
flew out of the
bus window while
I was riding to
school.
What you just ate,
if you must
know, was squid
eyeball stew.
Punctuate an interrupter
correctly.
Generally, you separate
an interrupter from the
rest of the sentence
with commas— one in
front of the interrupter
and one behind. The
pattern looks like this:
the first part of
the sentence + ,
+ interrupter + ,
+ the rest of the
sentence .
Check out these
examples:
Jerome’s calculus
teacher is usually
a real slave driver.
Tonight ,
surprisingly,
Jerome has only
fifty problems to
solve as
homework.
My cat Fuzz loves
to curl up on my
lap and sleep.
Buster, on the
other hand,
prefers to use my
thigh as a
scratching post.
The bathroom
tiles , whenever
time permits,
require a good
scrubbing, for the
grout is black with
mold.
If you want to
emphasize the break
more strongly , use
dashes to separate the
interrupter from the
rest of the sentence.
The pattern looks like
this:
the first part of
the sentence +
— + interrupter
+ — + the rest of
the sentence .
These sentences
illustrate the pattern:
That chocolate-
broccoli muffin—
though a good
source of
vitamin C— will
upset Frank’s
stomach this early
in the morning.
My brother’s
seven-foot python
—aptly named
Squeeze—
slithered out the
open back door
and frightened
Mrs. Russell, our
next-door
neighbor, nearly
to death.
That nuclear
orange jacket —
believe me—
fails to
complement your
lime green pants.

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WISHES


Present Wishes

Present wishes indicate
something that is “contrary
to fact.” That is, wishes are
something that is untrue but
desired. For example,
I wish that I had a sports car.
I wish that I were a doctor.
(The truth is I don’t have a
sports car.)
(I ‘m really not a doctor.)
For present wishes, the
past tense is used in the
that clause, because it
indicates a situation that is
only imagined. Sometimes
the word that is omitted.
She wishes (that ) she had a
diamond ring.
He wishes (that ) he were rich.
To express possibility (can)
and future intention (will) ,
use the modals could and
would respectively.
She wishes that she could
sing.
They wish that she would
stop .
When a “be” verb is
required, the word were is
used, regardless of the
subject.
We wish you were here.
I wish (that ) I were taller.
Textbook
Recommendation:
Touchy Situations , Chapter 19
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The clause


!
The Clause
Recognize a clause when
you see one.
Clauses come in four
types: main [or
independent],
subordinate [or
dependent], adjective
[or relative] , and noun .
Every clause has at least
a subject and a verb .
Other characteristics
will help you distinguish
one type of clause from
another.
Main Clauses
Every main
clause will follow
this pattern:
subject + verb
= complete
thought.
Here are some
examples:
Lazy students
whine.
Students =
subject; whine
= verb.
Cola spilled
over the glass
and splashed
onto the
counter.
Cola = subject;
spilled ,
splashed =
verbs.
My dog loves
pizza crusts.
Dog = subject;
loves = verb.
The important
point to
remember is that
every sentence
must have at least
one main clause.
Otherwise, you
have a fragment ,
a major error.
Subordinate Clauses
A subordinate
clause
will follow this
pattern:
subordinate
conjunction +
subject + verb
= incomplete
thought.
Here are some
examples:
Whenever lazy
students whine
Whenever =
subordinate
conjunction;
students =
subject; whine
= verb.
As cola spilled
over the glass
and splashed
onto the
counter
As =
subordinate
conjunction;
cola = subject;
spilled ,
splashed =
verbs.
Because my
dog loves pizza
crusts
Because =
subordinate
conjunction;
dog = subject;
loves = verb.
The important
point to
remember about
subordinate
clauses is that
they can never
stand alone as
complete
sentences. To
complete the
thought, you must
attach each
subordinate
clause to a main
clause. Generally,
the punctuation
looks like this:
main clause +
Ø +
subordinate
clause.
subordinate
clause + , +
main clause.
Check out these
revisions to the
subordinate
clauses above:
Whenever
lazy students
whine , Mrs.
Russell throws
chalk erasers
at their heads.
Anthony ran for
the paper
towels as cola
spilled over
the glass and
splashed onto
the counter.
Because my
dog loves
pizza crusts ,
he never barks
at the
deliveryman.
Relative Clauses
A relative clause
will begin with a
relative pronoun
[such as who ,
whom, whose,
which , or that ] or
a relative adverb
[ when, where , or
why ]. The
patterns look like
these:
relative
pronoun or
adverb +
subject + verb
= incomplete
thought.
relative
pronoun as
subject + verb
= incomplete
thought.
Here are some
examples:
Whom Mrs.
Russell hit in
the head with a
chalk eraser
Whom =
relative
pronoun; Mrs.
Russell =
subject; hit =
verb.
Where he
chews and
drools with
great
enthusiasm
Where =
relative adverb ;
he = subject;
chews , drools
= verbs.
That had
spilled over the
glass and
splashed onto
the counter
That = relative
pronoun; had
spilled ,
splashed =
verbs.
Who loves
pizza crusts
Who = relative
pronoun; loves
= verb.
Like subordinate
clauses, relative
clauses cannot
stand alone as
complete
sentences. You
must connect
them to main
clauses to finish
the thought. Look
at these revisions
of the relative
clauses above:
The lazy
students
whom Mrs.
Russell hit in
the head with
a chalk eraser
soon learned
to keep their
complaints to
themselves.
My dog Floyd,
who loves
pizza crusts ,
eats them
under the
kitchen table,
where he
chews and
drools with
great
enthusiasm.
Anthony ran to
get paper
towels for the
cola that had
spilled over
the glass and
splashed onto
the counter.
Punctuating
relative clauses
can be tricky. You
have to decide if
the relative clause
is essential or
nonessential and
then use commas
accordingly.
Essential
relative clauses
do not require
commas. A
relative clause is
essential when
you need the
information it
provides. Look at
this example:
A dog that
eats too
much pizza
will soon
develop
pepperoni
breath.
Dog is
nonspecific. To
know which dog
we are talking
about, we must
have the
information in the
relative clause.
Thus, the relative
clause is essential
and requires no
commas.
If, however, we
revise dog and
choose more
specific words
instead, the
relative clause
becomes
nonessential and
does require
commas to
separate it from
the rest of the
sentence. Read
this revision:
My dog Floyd ,
who eats too
much pizza,
has developed
pepperoni
breath.
Noun Clauses
Any clause that
functions as a
noun becomes a
noun clause.
Look at this
example:
You really do
not want to
know the
ingredients in
Aunt Nancy’s
stew.
Ingredients =
noun.
If we replace the
noun ingredients
with a clause, we
have a noun
clause:
You really do
not want to
know what
Aunt Nancy
adds to her
stew .
What Aunt
Nancy adds
to her stew =
noun clause.

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